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ABOUT TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

The term Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region.

 

Upon a country's full independence from the United Kingdom, Anglophone Caribbean or Commonwealth Caribbean traditionally becomes the preferred sub-regional term as a replacement to British West Indies.[1]

 

TERRITORIES

The independent island-nations that are considered as Commonwealth Caribbean include:

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda.svg/23px-Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda.svg.png Antigua and Barbuda

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Flag_of_the_Bahamas.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Bahamas.svg.png The Bahamas

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Flag_of_Barbados.svg/23px-Flag_of_Barbados.svg.png Barbados

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/Flag_of_Dominica.svg/23px-Flag_of_Dominica.svg.png Dominica

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_Grenada.svg/23px-Flag_of_Grenada.svg.png Grenada

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0a/Flag_of_Jamaica.svg/23px-Flag_of_Jamaica.svg.png Jamaica

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis.svg/23px-Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis.svg.png Saint Kitts and Nevis

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Saint_Lucia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Saint_Lucia.svg.png Saint Lucia

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6d/Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines.svg/23px-Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines.svg.png Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago.svg/23px-Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago.svg.png Trinidad and Tobago

 

Anglophone Caribbean also refers to the independent English-speaking countries known as the "Mainland Caribbean". These include:

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Flag_of_Belize.svg/23px-Flag_of_Belize.svg.png Belize, once known as British Honduras.

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_Guyana.svg/23px-Flag_of_Guyana.svg.png Guyana, once known as British Guiana.

 

 

The Anglophone Caribbean makes up a composite cricket team. The West Indies cricket team also includes Guyana, as another former British colony. Bermuda, the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, and the English-speaking Dutch West Indies also participate in Anglophone Caribbean-related sports activities such as 20/20 Cricket.

 

1 CURRENCY

·       The Trinidadian Dollar is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago.

·       1.00 USD

=

6.69441 TTD

US Dollar

Trinidadian Dollar

1 USD = 6.69441 TTD

1 TTD = 0.149378 USD

 

2 ECONOMY & GOVERNMENT

Trinidad and Tobago attracts considerable foreign direct investment, particularly in energy, and has one of the highest per capita incomes in Latin America and the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago is the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, and its economy is heavily dependent upon these resources. It also supplies manufactured goods, notably food products and beverages, as well as cement to the Caribbean region. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports but only 5% of employment.

Growth has been fueled by investments in liquefied natural gas, petrochemicals, and steel with additional upstream and downstream investment planned. Oil production has declined over the last decade as the country focused the majority of its efforts on natural gas. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8% per year, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP slowed down since then and contracted during 2009-12 due to depressed natural gas prices and changing markets.

 

The current administration has been working to arrest this decline by opening bid rounds and providing fiscal incentives for investments in onshore and deep water acreage to boost oil reserves and production. The government keeps a close watch on the changing global gas markets and has shown flexibility in diversifying natural gas export destinations. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus with the US, Trinidad and Tobago's leading trade partner.

 

Although Trinidad and Tobago enjoys cheap electricity from natural gas, the renewable energy sector has recently garnered increased interest. The country is also a regional financial center with a well-regulated and stable financial system. Other sectors the Government of Trinidad and Tobago has targeted for increased investment and projected growth include tourism, agriculture, information and communications technology, and shipping.

 

The previous MANNING administration benefited from fiscal surpluses fueled by the dynamic export sector; however, declines in oil and gas prices have reduced government revenues, challenging the current government's commitment to maintaining high levels of public investment. Crime and bureaucratic hurdles continue to be the biggest deterrents for attracting more foreign direct investment and business.

 

Prime Minister

·       Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

 

Education Minister:

·       The Honourable ANTHONY GARCIA, M.P.Minister of Education

Ministry of Education

 


3 POPULATION

·       1,222,363 (July 2015 est.)

Capital City:

·       Port of Spain

4 OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

·       English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese

5 POLITICS & GOVT (Cabinet)

·    Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

·       explorer Christopher COLUMBUS named the larger island "La Isla de la Trinidad" (The Island of the Trinity) on 31 July 1498 on his third voyage; the tobacco grown and smoked by the natives of the smaller island or its elongated cigar shape may account for the "tobago" name, which is spelled "tobaco" in Spanish

GOVERNMENT:

·       parliamentary republic

INDEPENDENCE:

·    31 August 1962 (from the UK)

CONSTITUTION:

·    previous 1962; latest 1976; amended many times, last in 2007 (2016)

LEGAL SYSTEM:

·    English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

INTERNATIONAL LAW ORGANIZATION PARTICIPATION:

·    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

EXECUTIVE BRANCH:

chief of state: 

·       President Anthony CARMONA (since 18 March 2013)

head of government: 

 

·       Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

 

cabinet: 

 

·    Cabinet appointed from among members of Parliament

 

elections/appointments: 

 

·       president indirectly elected by an electoral college of selected Senate and House of Representatives members for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 February 2013 (next to be held by February 2018); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister

 

INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES:

·       Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's EEZ; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration, as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may also extend into its waters

 

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS:

·    current situation: Trinidad and Tobago is a destination, transit, and possible source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; women and girls from Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, and Colombia have been subjected to sex trafficking in Trinidad and Tobago’s brothels and clubs; some economic migrants from the Caribbean region and Asia are vulnerable to forced labor in domestic service and the retail sector; the steady flow of vessels transiting Trinidad and Tobago’s territorial waters may also increase opportunities for forced labor for fishing; international crime organizations are increasingly involved in trafficking, and boys are coerced to sell drugs and guns; corruption among police and immigration officials impedes anti-trafficking efforts

 

TIER RATING:

·    Tier 2 Watch List – Trinidad and Tobago does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts decreased from the initiation of 12 prosecutions in 2013 to 1 in 2014; the government has yet to convict anyone under its 2011 anti-trafficking law, and all prosecutions from previous years remain pending; the government sustained efforts to identify victims and to refer them for care at NGO facilities, which it provided with funding; the government failed to draft a national action plan as mandated under the 2011 anti-trafficking law and did not launch a sufficiently robust awareness campaign to educate the public and officials (2015)

 

ILLICIT DRUGS:

transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

 

Diplomatic representation in the US:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Colin MIchael CONNELLY (since 15 August 2015

chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490

FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130

consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador John L. ESTRADA (since 19 April 2016)

embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain

mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain

telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376

FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905

 

6 BRITISH HIGH COMMISSION

7 SOVEREIGNTY

Sovereign states

·        Antigua and Barbuda

·        Bahamas

·        Barbados

·        Belize

·        Canada

·        Costa Rica

·        Cuba

·        Dominica

·        Dominican Republic

·        El Salvador

·        Grenada

·        Guatemala

·        Haiti

·        Honduras

·        Jamaica

·        Mexico

·        Nicaragua

·        Panama

·        Saint Kitts and Nevis

·        Saint Lucia

·        Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

·        Trinidad and Tobago

·        United States

 

8 EDUCATION

 

EDUCATION MINISTER:

 

·       The Honourable ANTHONY GARCIA, M.P.Minister of Education

Ministry of Education

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

 

9 COMMUNICATIONS & MEDIA

Telephones - fixed lines:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total subscriptions: 290,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Telephones - mobile cellular:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 2 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 162 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Telephone system:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

general assessment: excellent international service; good local service

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 170 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2011)

Broadcast media:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

5 TV networks, one of which is state-owned, broadcast on multiple stations; multiple cable TV subscription service providers; multiple radio networks, one state-owned, broadcast over about 35 stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

AM 2, FM 28, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

6 (2005)

Internet country code:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

.tt

Internet hosts:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

241,690 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 69

Internet users:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 779,900

percent of population: 63.7% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

 

10 GENERAL

First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry.

The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962.

The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.

The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.

Location:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

11 00 N, 61 00 W

Map references:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

Central America and the Caribbean

Area:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 5,128 sq km

land: 5,128 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 174

Area - comparative:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

0 km

Coastline:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

362 km

Maritime claims:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin

Climate:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Elevation:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

mean elevation: 83 m

elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

Natural resources:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land use:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

agricultural land: 10.6%

arable land 4.9%; permanent crops 4.3%; permanent pasture 1.4%

forest: 44%

other: 45.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

70 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

3.84 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 0.23 cu km/yr (67%/25%/8%)

per capita: 177.9 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Environment - current issues:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt

 

·        11 National anthem:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty"

lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE

note: adopted 1962; song originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962

 

Trinidad & Tobago National Anthem performed by Keron James

https://youtu.be/FBywPf6oyFQ